本文摘要:Doping scandals marred the runup to the Rio Olympics and other games of the recent past. Now, scientists warn that cheating could rise to a new level using genetic research.兴奋剂丑闻给里大约奥运会和最近的其他比赛掩盖了一层阴影。


Doping scandals marred the runup to the Rio Olympics and other games of the recent past. Now, scientists warn that cheating could rise to a new level using genetic research.兴奋剂丑闻给里大约奥运会和最近的其他比赛掩盖了一层阴影。现在,科学家警告称之为,如果用于基因技术,作弊将下降到一个新的高度。There are already a number of products and methods used to boost athletic performance that the International Olympic Committee considers to be illegal.目前国际奥委会早已确认很多用来提升运动员成绩的产品和手段是非法的了。

For example, theres a hormone that can boost red blood cell production, making more oxygen available. That increases endurance. Then there are anabolic steroids and human growth hormone, which promote muscle growth.例如,有一种激素可以增进红细胞生长,生产更加多氧气。这样就可以提升耐力。还有可以增进肌肉生长的同化性类固醇和人类生长激素。

There are a couple of types of blood doping. One involves a transfusion of the athletes own blood that had been removed earlier and stored.还有两种血液兴奋剂。一种是运动员提早把自己的血液取出并储存起来,赛前再行赢回来;The second method uses blood from another person, but of the same type as the athletes blood. Both methods raise the number of red blood cells that carry oxygen.另一种是用于完全相同血型的其他人的血液。这两种方法都需要提升血液中红细胞的数量。

Carl Johan Sundberg, a professor of molecular exercise physiology at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm and a member of the World Anti-Doping Agencys gene doping panel, said scientists have gotten pretty good at detecting doping substances, as long as theres not too much time between doping and testing.瑞典斯德哥尔摩卡罗林斯卡医学院分子运动生理学教授、也是世界反兴奋剂机构基因兴奋剂小组成员卡尔·乔安·桑德伯格回应,科学家们早已很好地掌控了检测药物成分的方法,只要服药时间和检测时间不要间隔太久。The illegal substances used fade out over — depending on the type of drug — days, weeks or months, he said.“运动员体内的的非法药物含量“依药物种类而以定–不会随着时间增加,有可能是几天,也有可能是几周、几个月。”他说。

But with the new techniques and the new discoveries of long-term metabolites, metabolic steroids, weeks have become months.“但是随着技术手段的繁盛和长效新陈代谢类固醇的问世,这个时间还不会缩短。So the chance of detection has gone up a lot, which is why retesting recently of samples from the London and Beijing Olympic Games has shown that theres a higher prevalence of doping usage than was assumed with the previous testing methodologies.所以检测的机会提高了很多,这就是为什么伦敦奥运会和北京奥运会之间展开的新的检测,检测的药物使用率十分之低,比用传统技术手段检测低得多。”The next phase of cheating, however, may involve gene doping, which Sundberg defined as the administration of nucleic acids of some sort — mainly DNA or other types of similar molecules — that are put into the body normally in health care for the purpose of gene therapy to treat specific disorders.桑德伯格指出,下一阶段的作弊可能会是基因层面的用药,用他的话说道就是“掌控一些核酸——比如脱氧核糖核酸和具备相近分子的核酸——这种手段本来是作为基因疗法用来化疗一些失调的。

”But athletes, he said, would be seeking to boost certain genes that may improve performance. We dont know yet whether this has been done anywhere, but presumably, nevertheless, it will be used sometime.但是他回应,运动员们可能会性刺激一些可以协助提升成绩的基因。我们不告诉是不是过这种作法,但是无论如何,这种方法早晚都会经常出现的。Sundberg warned that there are health risks to athletes who use gene doping. For instance, there can be adverse effects on the immune system from the virus that carries the artificial genes through the body.桑德伯格警告称之为,用于基因兴奋剂的运动员可能会有身体健康风险。

例如,免疫系统不会产生副作用,病毒不会随着人造基因游荡全身。Those genes also could cause cancer because of an enhanced growth of cells.因为细胞的出现异常生长,这些基因还有可能引起癌症。